A study on prevalence of Congenital anomalies in fetuses among pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital and its association with socio-demographic factors
Alakananda, SS Choudhury, Changsan Neiting
Objectives: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of congenital anomaly, types of anomaly and associated risk factor if any. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study over a period of one year in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Gauhati Medical College. All congenital anomaly cases detected antenatally or at delivery were included in the study. Cases were analyzed to find out the prevalence, types of anomalies and its relation with risk factors including maternal age. Results: Prevalence of fetal congenital anomaly was 0.7%. Out of 96 cases only 15 cases (15.6%) were detected at 2nd trimester. Central Nervous System (CNS) deformity was the commonest defect observed with 41cases (42.7 %) out of which maximum cases (38) had neural tube defect. Anomalies were found more in younger age group, in primi gravida and in women with anemia and in low socio economic group. Various risk factors were associated in 7 numbers of cases out of 96.Conclusion: Prevalence of congenital anomaly was 0.7% and Nueral Tube Defect (NTD) was the most common anomaly observed in our study. Majority cases were not associated with any risk factor. Routine anomaly scan is an important measure for early detection of malformation, primary prevention of disability and reducing perinatal mortality and morbidity.