A review on hormonal complications of gastrointestinal system and its treatment during prenatal period
Dr. A. V. Kishore Babu, Dr. A. Srinivasa Rao
The endocrine system of human pregnancy involves hormonal and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Initially, the ovaries, and then later, the placenta, are the main producers of pregnancy-related hormones that are essential in creating and maintaining the correct conditions required for a successful pregnancy. Progesterone and estrogen have a great role, receptors for these hormones have been found on gastrointestinal cells, which suggest that the gastrointestinal tract is designed to sense and react to them. The altered levels of these hormones changes normal physiological functions of gastrointestinal tract and leads to morning sickness (nausea and vomiting), acid reflux, heartburn, indigestion, abdominal bloating, diarrhea and constipation. The goal of treatment is to improve symptoms while minimizing risks to mother and fetus. To attain this, a multimodal approach tailored to each individual is usually needed. Treatment modalities range from simple dietary modifications to drug therapy and total parental nutrition.