A study on risk factors and clinical presentation of ectopic pregnancy
Nethra H S, Praneetha K, Sreelatha S, Seema Shyam Bhairi
Objectives: The present study was designed to study the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy and their clinical presentation. Material and methods: It was a retrospective study with 100 cases of ectopic pregnancy conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ESIC MC PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Banglore for a period of 2 years were included. Detailed history suggestive of risk factors for ectopic pregnancy, menstrual and obstetric history was taken. Results: A total of 7200 pregnancies were confirmed during the study period, of which 100 cases of ectopic pregnancies were diagnosed, giving an incidence of 1.38%. Sixty three percent were in the age group of 21-30 years. Seventy six percent of women were multigravidae. Forty eight percent of the patients had identifiable risk factors, of which past history of pelvic inflammatory disease in 28%, history of previous abortion in 16%, infertility in 10%, history of previous ectopic pregnancy in 14%, history of previous caesarian section in 18% and tubectomy in 14% were noted. Ninety six percent had amenorrhea, followed by pain abdomen in 88%, bleeding per vagina in 78%, fainting and syncopal attack in 16% of the patients. Pallor in 56% of the cases, 10% presented with shock. Conclusion: The early diagnosis of an ectopic pregnancy is one of the greatest challenges for a physician. It requires a high index of suspicion in case of clinical presentation of pain abdomen, bleeding per vagina with amenorrhoea. The im¬portance of an early diagnosis lies in the fact that the patient can be offered a conservative line of management which can definitely have a beneficial effect on her future fertility.