Study of association of lateral implantation of placenta with development of preeclampsia and its outcome
Vandana Ambastha, Sreelatha S, Asha Devi, Shruthi Kallesh, Sumaiah, Kavitha LB,Sandeep, Rajeshwari
Background: Pre eclampsia (PE) is a life threatening multisystem disorder, unique to pregnancy, complicating approximately 28% of pregnancies in developed countries and approximately 5-8% in developing countries. It is the 2nd most important cause of maternal mortality in the world. The search for an ideal predictive test for PE still remains a major challenge for obstetricians. Objectives: To study whether ultrasonologically identified placental laterality can be used as a predictor of pre eclampsia. To assess the incidence of pre eclampsia and other feto-maternal outcome with centrally located placenta and those with laterally located placenta. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 250 uncomplicated primigravidas with singleton pregnancy attending the antenatal clinic from January 2016 to June 2017. Patients were subjected to ultrasound examination and placental location was determined between 18-24 weeks and again between 32-36 weeks period of gestation. These cases were followed till the delivery. Results: Out of total 250women, 148 had central placenta, in which 8 (5.41%) developed preeclampsia, while 102 had lateral placenta, in which 40 (39.22%) developed preeclampsia. Thus, in total 48 women developing PE, 40 (83.33%) had lateral placenta whereas, only 8 (16.67%) had central placenta. The difference was found to be statistically significant as p value is <0.001, sensitivity is 84% and specificity is 70%. Conclusion: From the above study we concluded that women with laterally located placenta determined by USG have 5 times greater risk of developing PE. So, placental laterality is a simple yet reliable and cost effective predictive screening test for pre-eclampsia.