Maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy and puerperium in obese women
Mrudula Munibala, Veena. K.S
Background: The magnitude of prevalence of obesity has been increasing in developing nations. Obesity poses risk of cardiovascular and metabolic problems for the woman and her offspring. There is paucity of data regarding complications among obese pregnant women in India, hence this study was conducted. Objectives: To assess complications associated during pregnancy, labor, puerperium and immediate effect on new born among obese women. Methodology: 110 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in first trimester were enrolled and grouped into obese and non-obese based on BMI. Patients observed for development of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, GDM, mode of delivery and puerperial infection. Fetal outcome was documented in terms of APGAR scores, birth weight, NICU admission and compared between two groups. Results: Incidence of gestational diabetes was 14% and 2%, gestational hypertension was 8% and 0%, preeclampsia was 16% and 4% in obese and control groups respectively which were statistically significant. Obese women had 3.14 times increased risk of being induced than controls. The primary caesarean delivery rates were higher in obese group (36%) compared to controls (16%). Wound infection and wound dehiscence rates were higher in the obese women (10% and 4%) than the controls (2% and 2%). Mean birth weight of the neonate in the obese group was 3.16 kg and 2.87 kg in the controls was statistically significant. Conclusion: Obesity during pregnancy has risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, induction of labor, LSCS, wound infection, delivering large babies and neonatal admissions. We recommend counseling of pregnant women to prevent complication.