Relationship between thyroid disorder and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy
Mili D. Chowdhury, S.S. Ghose, Abhish Mohan
Background: Thyroid disorders and iron deficiency (ID) are associated with obstetrical and fetal complications. Iron is essential for the normal functioning of thyroid peroxidase (TPO-abs) and ID is frequent during pregnancy. Objective: The present study was undertaken to see the relationship between iron deficiency anaemia and thyroid disorder in antenatal cases. Methods: A total of 100 cases attending the outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in their 1st trimester (from LMP to 12 weeks) were studied at Naval Hospital Powai during a period from Jan 2016 to Dec 2017. A detailed clinical and obstetric history was taken and patients were subjected to routine antenatal investigations along with thyroid profile. Results: Among 100 cases, 21 antenatal cases had increased TSH. Out of which 4 cases had overt hypothyroidism and 17 cases had subclinical hypothyroidism. 2 cases had decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in early trimester out of which only 1 had overt hyperthyroidism. In the same study 23 cases had mild iron deficiency anaemia and 4 had moderate anaemia. It was later correlated that out of 27 cases with anaemia 14 had hypothyroidism. 51% of the cases with anaemia had hypothyroidism and 60% of the hypothyroid cases had iron deficiency anaemia. Applying regression analysis between TSH and Hb level, there was a positive correlation between these two factors in cases. r2 value was found to be 0.2871. This was statistically significant with a P value of less than 0.005. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is increased prevalence of thyroid disorders and iron deficiency anaemia in antenatal cases and there is relationship between iron deficiency anaemia and hypothyroid cases.