Prenatal diagnosis of congenital fetal malformations medically terminated: a retrospective analysis
Papa Dasari, Pratima Aggrawal
Objectives: The primary objective of this study is to find out demographic and clinical profile of women with congenital malformation who underwent MTP and secondary objective is to find out types of congenital malformations, risk factors and method of termination of pregnancy. Methods: This retrospective cohort involved women with congenital malformations who underwent medical termination (MTP) over a 3 year period (July 2016 to June 2019) in a tertiary care facility. Data was analysed with respect to gestational age and spectrum of malformations and results were expressed as frequencies and proportions. Results: Of the 640 women underwent MTP, 245 were for congenital fetal malformations (38.2%). The mean age was 25 years, 95% belonged to low socioeconomic status and from rural background and were Hindus. The most common system affected was CNS (55.5%) followed by renal. The most common lethal anomalies were anencepahaly and hydrocephalous. Majority were diagnosed between 16 to 20 weeks and only 3 % were diagnosed in first trimester. Risk factors were third and second degree consanguinity (27%), diabetes in pregnancy (28%) and non consumption of folic acid preconceptionally (92%). Conclusion: The most common anomalies are largely preventable as they involved CNS and 40% were anencephaly. Non-consumption of folic acid, consanguineous marriage and diabetes mellitus were the risk factors. This suggests the need for increasing public awareness for intake of periconceptional folic acid and practice of pre-conceptional care for control of medical disorders.