A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus in Nigeria
Taoreed Adegoke Azeez, Tamunosaki Abo-Briggs, Ayodeji Sylvester Adeyanju
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first diagnosis in pregnancy. GDM has numerous potential complications and it is important to estimate its burden and risk factors. Objective: The objective of the meta-analysis was to determine the pooled prevalence of GDM in Nigeria and identify its determinants. Methods: The study design was a meta-analysis, therefore the PRISMA guidelines were followed. Electronic databases (African Journal Online, PubMed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar) and the grey literature were systematically searched. Statistical analysis was done with MetaXL using the random effect model. Heterogeneity was determined using the I2 statistic and the publication bias was checked with the Doi plot. Results: The total sample size was 46,210. The prevalence of GDM in Nigeria was 0.5 – 38% and the pooled prevalence was 11.0%. The I2 statistic was 99%. The Doi plot suggested some degree of bias. The most frequently reported determinants of GDM were previous macrosomic babies, maternal obesity, family history of diabetes, previous miscarriage and advanced maternal age. Conclusion: The prevalence of GDM in Nigeria is high and efforts should be geared at modifying its risk factors so as to reduce its prevalence and prevent the associated complications.